Here’s a link to a tool I run from my personal page. It allows you to pick a home key (Major/Ionean) and see everything I could come up with that qualifies as an interesting substitution or borrowed chord. I’m sure there will be more to add down the line, but I’ve barely scratched the surface of putting these into practice.
I’ve always found Phrygian difficult to use, but using the characteristic flat second in the context of a minor arpeggio rounds off some of the edges. These tend to look a bit scale-like, but really you find the main pinky-ring-index motion up the core of the arpeggio remains the same, and you just have the extra ♭2 to color the sound.
I’ve been struggling with ways to highlight modal sounds lately and figured I should try and work out characteristic arpeggios. I don’t know if this is an accepted concept or not, but I’ve found it useful, so figured I’d throw them out there. The first one is a Lydian arpeggio, which is just the major 7 with an added #4/#11.